ACUC: Animal Care and Use Committee
Airborne Radioactive Material: Radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dust, fume, mist, vapor, or gas. [Title 10 CFR §20.1004 and Title 17, CCR]
ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable): ALARA is a regulatory concept devised to ensure that every reasonable effort is made to keep exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed activity is undertaken. ALARA takes into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations. It exists in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed materials in the public interest. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
Ancillary Personnel: Individuals (such as maintenance workers, lab researchers, interns, students, administrative workers, etc.) who are not ordinarily exposed to radiation or radiation producing machines in the course of their jobs, but whose duties may extend to areas of potential exposure and require basic radiation safety training.
Background radiation: Ambient radiation from the cosmos, from rocks and soil, or from 40K (radioactive potassium) in the body.
Cabinet X-ray Machine: A machine constructed such that the useful beam is completely contained within a shielded cabinet, room, or other enclosure from which humans are excluded when the beam is on. This does not include medical machines or X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis machines (see below).
CAC: California Administrative Code
CCR: California Code of Regulations
CDPH: California Department of Public Health
CFR: Code of Federal Regulations
Controlled Area: An area outside of a restricted area but inside the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the licensee for any reason. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003]. At UC Berkeley, all areas dedicated to the use or storage of radioactive materials are designated controlled areas. With permission, non-occupationally exposed individuals may be present in these areas (See also restricted area).
Curie: A unit of radioactivity corresponding to a disintegration rate of 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second.
Declared Pregnant Worker: A person who uses or works near ionizing radiation sources and who has voluntarily informed the EH&S (in writing) of their pregnancy and the estimated conception or due date. The declaration remains in effect until the worker withdraws the declaration in writing. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
Dose: A generic term for any of the following: absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
Dosimeter, Dosimetry: A device worn or carried for the purpose of measuring and registering an individual’s radiation dose. Dosimeters include film badges, thermoluminescent badges (TLD), pocket chambers, pocket dosimeters, and finger rings.
EH&S (Environment, Health & Safety): The Office of Environment, Health & Safety at UC Berkeley.
Electron Microscope: A device that visualizes matter via interaction with high-speed electrons. This includes both scanning and transmission units, regardless of accelerating voltage.
Engineering Controls: Safety features included as an integral part of a laboratory or other facility. Examples include increased ventilation, fume hoods, radiation shielding, and safety interlocks.
Fail-safe: A default protection design. If a fail-safe indicator or light fails, the operation it indicates will automatically cease. For example, if a fail-safe “X-RAY ON” light burns out, X-rays will automatically cease to be produced.
HGV (Hazard Guide Value): A computed value that determines the RUA classification and the depth of review required for approval or renewal.
High Radiation Area: A posted, accessible area in which radiation levels from external sources could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 100 mrem in one hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003] (See also Radiation Area and Very High Radiation Area.)
Human Use: The internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive materials to human beings. [17 CCR §30100 and Title 17, CCR]
Investigation: The formal EH&S Radiation Safety response to any radiological event—for example, in the event that an individual’s combined external and internal exposure reaches twice the value of applicable UC Berkeley administrative guidelines.
Ionizing Radiation: (1) gamma rays and X-rays, and (2) alpha and beta particles, high-speed electrons, neutrons, protons, and other nuclear particles. Sound or radio waves, or visible, infrared [IR] or ultraviolet [UV] light are not considered ionizing radiation. [Title 17 CCR §30100]
Licensed Material: means source material, special nuclear material, or byproduct material received, possessed, used, transferred or disposed of under a general or specific license issued by CDPH or NRC.
Medical Machine: A device used to deliberately expose humans to ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical diagnosis or treatment. This classification is determined by use rather than design.
Member of the Public: An individual who is not exposed to radiation or radiation producing machines as part of his or her job. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
Minor: An individual less than 18 years of age. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
mrem (millirem): One-thousandth of a rem, the special unit that expresses biological damage or risk from radiation. 1millirem = 0.01mSv.
mSv (milliSievert): One-thousandth of a sievert (see Sievert). 1mSv = 100mrem
NCRP: The National Council of Radiation Protection.
Non-Occupational Dose: The dose received by an individual who does not work directly with radiation (e.g., office worker, maintenance person, building services person, visitor, etc.). See Public Dose.
NRC: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its duly authorized representatives. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
Occupational Dose: The dose received by an individual in the course of assigned employment duties that involve exposure to radiation or to radioactive material from licensed and unlicensed sources of radiation. This applies to both the licensee and others. Occupational dose does not apply to members of the public or to the dose received from background radiation, medical administration, exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with 10 CFR §35.75, or voluntary participation in medical research programs. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR]
Personnel Monitoring Equipment: See Dosimetry.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Safety equipment used by an individual for protection against expected or unexpected hazards associated with a procedure. Examples include gloves, goggles, shoe covers, and respirators.
Public Dose: The dose received by a member of the public from exposure to radiation or radioactive material released by a licensee, or to any other source of radiation under the control of a licensee. Public dose does not include occupational dose or dose received from background radiation, medical administration, exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with 10 CFR §35.75, or voluntary participation in medical research programs. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17]
Quality Factor (Q): The factor by which the absorbed dose (RAD) is multiplied to express the biological damage or risk (rem) to an exposed individual.
Radiation: See Ionizing Radiation.
Radiation Area: An accessible area in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of five (5) mrem in one hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR] (See also High Radiation Area and Very High Radiation Area.)
Radiation Producing Machine (RPM): Add and move any device capable of producing ionizing radiation when the associated control devices are operated. This does not include devices that produce radiation only by the use of radioactive material. [Title 17 CCR §30100]
Radiation Safety Committee (RSC): A committee appointed by UC Berkeley administration and granted authority by the State of California to authorize and control the use of radiation at the University.
Radiation Safety Officer (RSO): An individual delegated responsibility for the Radiation Safety Program at UC Berkeley.
Radiation Source: Any source that produces electromagnetic or particulate radiation.
Radiation Use Authorization (RUA): An authorization to use radiation, granted by the RSO and/or RSC to an RH.
RUA Holder (RH): An individual, usually a faculty member or person in charge, who has been authorized by the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) and granted a Radiation Use Authorization (RUA).
Radioactive Material: Any material that emits radiation spontaneously. [Title 17 CCR §30100]
Radioisotope: See radioactive material.
Radionuclide: See radioactive material.
rem: The special unit that expresses biological damage or risk from radiation. 1 Rem = 0.01 Sieverts
Restricted Area: An area to which access is limited by the licensee for the purpose of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. Individuals other than radiation workers approved for occupational exposure are not permitted in these areas unless escorted by radiation safety staff. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003] (See also controlled area.)
RSM: Radiation Safety Manual
RST: Radiation Safety Team
Sealed Source: Any radioactive material encapsulated in such a way that it cannot be released under the severest conditions likely to be encountered during normal use.
Source Material: Uranium or thorium or any combination of uranium or thorium in any physical or chemical form or ores that contain, by weight, one-twentieth of 1 percent (0.05 %), or more, of uranium or thorium, or any combination of uranium and thorium. Source material does not include special nuclear material.
Special Nuclear Material (SNM): (1) Plutonium, uranium 233, uranium enriched in the isotopes 233 or 235, and any other material which the CDPH declares by rule to be special nuclear material after the NRC or any successor thereto, has determined the material to be such, but does not include source material; or (2) any material artificially enriched by any of the aforementioned. [Title 17 CCR §30100]
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Standard Operating Procedure.
State (the State): The State of California and any of its agencies empowered to establish regulations regarding radiation and/or radioactive materials.
Survey: An evaluation of the safety precautions put in place to protect against radiation hazards related to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence of radiation sources under a specific set of conditions. The evaluation often includes a physical inspection of the source of radiation and its surrounding area using suitable monitoring/sample-collection techniques. (See also investigation.)
Sv (sievert): One hundred rem. A special unit that expresses biological damage or risk from radiation. 1 sievert = 100 rem.
UC Berkeley, the University: All locations under the administrative control of the Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley campus.
Unrestricted Area: An area to which access is neither limited nor controlled by UC Berkeley. [Title 10 CFR §20.1003 and Title 17, CCR].
User: An individual who is listed on an RUA as a user of radiation and has been properly trained.
Very High Radiation Area: A posted and restricted area in which radiation levels from external sources could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 100 mrem in one hour at 30 centimeters from the radiation source or from any surface that the radiation penetrates. [Title 10 CFR §20.1005 and Title 17, CCR] (See also Radiation Area and High Radiation Area.)
X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Analysis Machine: A machine that produces X-ray beams to analyze various substances via X-ray diffraction or X-ray–stimulated fluorescence.